The United Republic of Tanzania includes the spice islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, and Mafia and is home to Africa’s highest point—Kilimanjaro, at 5895 meters. It is surrounded by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to the west; Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south; and the Indian Ocean to the east.
Tanzania is one of the least developed countries but is richly endowed with natural resources. The country’s landscape comprises three physiographic regions: The Islands and the coastal plains to the east; the inland saucer-shaped plateau; and the highlands. The total land area is 947,300 km 2 . About two-thirds of the population is under 25 and more than 80% of the population is rural.
The country’s economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 65% of the work force. Agricultural commodities include coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum, cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, , banana, fruit, vegetables; and cattle, sheep, and goats.
Tanzania is the headquarters for IITA operations in the Eastern Africa region.